Cobalt is a hard metal and steel gray metallic luster, cobalt (Co) atomic number 27, is located VIII of the periodic table, the atomic weight of 58.93, its main physical and chemical parameters iron, nickel close iron genus Family element.

Cobalt is a magnetic hard metal with high melting point and good stability. Its Curie point (the critical temperature point of loss of magnetism) is 1150 ° C, with permanent magnet, melting point of 1495 ° C, boiling point of 2900 ° C, with high temperature resistance. It is an important raw material for the manufacture of heat-resistant alloys, hard alloys, anti-corrosion alloys, magnetic alloys and various cobalt salts. It is widely used in the aerospace, aerospace, electrical, mechanical, chemical and ceramic industries. Therefore, it is an important strategic material.

China's cobalt metal resources are about 1.4 million tons, most of which are associated resources, and there are very few cobalt deposits. China's cobalt ore grades are low, and they are all recovered as mine by-products. Due to low grade and complicated production process, the metal recovery rate is low and the production cost is high. In 1996, China's cobalt metal production (cobalt content) was 229 tons, cobalt-sulfur concentrate production (cobalt content) was 192 tons, and cobalt oxide was 638 tons. In recent years, the annual consumption of cobalt in China is stable at around 1200t. The domestic cobalt production, including cobalt oxide, is converted into cobalt totaling about 600-700t per year. Domestic cobalt production can not meet domestic demand, and about half of it needs to be imported every year.

First, the main features of ore minerals

Currently, nature has been found that cobalt minerals and cobalt-containing minerals were hundreds of species belonging to elemental, carbide, nitride, phosphide and silicon phosphide, arsenic compounds and sulfur arsenide, antimonide and sulfur, antimony, tellurides There are 14 categories of compounds and selenium tellurides, sulfides, selenides, oxides, hydroxides and hydrous oxide hydroxides, arsenates, carbonates and silicates. Among them, sulfide, arsenide and sulfur arsenide are the most.

There are three forms of cobalt in nature: 1 independent cobalt mineral, 2 is a homogeneous image or inclusion in a certain mineral, 3 is in the form of adsorption on some mineral surfaces, and the second is the most common form. . In isomorphous or microscopic inclusions present in the pyroxene, olivine, magnetite and cobalt chromite is not utilized, but occurs in pyrite and pyrrhotite who can use. Cobalt in iron ore with isomorphic or microscopic inclusions in sulfides and sulfur arsenide minerals requires a flotation process to be recovered, while in copper- nickel ore it is not necessary to add additional The beneficiation process, which is selected together with nickel and recovered from the smelting of nickel, so the production of cobalt from the slag is less expensive to produce. Cobalt in the form of adsorption is currently not available to the industry. World ocean floor manganese nodules containing cobalt rich, mineral raw materials may become a major production of cobalt in the next century.

Second, the main use of minerals

The physical and chemical properties of cobalt determine that it is an important raw material for the production of heat-resistant alloys, hard alloys, anti-corrosion alloys, magnetic alloys and various cobalt salts.

Cobalt-based alloys or cobalt-containing alloy steels are used as vane blades, impellers, ducts, jet engines, rocket engines, components of missiles, and various high-load heat-resistant components in chemical equipment and important metal materials for the atomic energy industry. Cobalt as a binder in powder metallurgy can ensure a certain toughness of cemented carbide. Magnetic alloys are indispensable materials in the modern electronics and electromechanical industries for the manufacture of various components of acoustic, optical, electrical and magnetic equipment. Cobalt is also an important part of permanent magnetic alloys. In the chemical industry, cobalt is used in high-temperature alloys and anti-corrosion alloys, as well as in colored glass, pigments, ruthenium and catalysts, desiccants, and the like. According to the British "Metal Guide", the demand for cobalt from the hard metal sector and superalloys is relatively strong. In addition, cobalt has the highest growth rate in the battery sector. According to domestic reports, the application of cobalt in the battery industry, diamond tool industry and catalyst industry will be further expanded, and the demand for metallic cobalt is on the rise.

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